African Union FlagCivic Freedom Monitor: African Union

Introduction | Key Facts | Members | At a Glance
Key Legal Texts | Overview | Reports | News and Additional Resources
Last updated 6 May 2017

Update: Moussa Faki of Chad became the new AU chairperson in January 2017 when Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma of South Africa left her position after having completed her term in August 2016. Alpha Condé of Guinea became the head of the African Union in January 2017 as well. In addition, in January 2017 Morocco rejoined the African Union after 33 years of withdrawing its memberhsip. Morocco had been the only African country not to belong to the AU, having left its predecessor, the Organization of African Unity, in 1984 after that organization recognized the independence of Western Sahara. The AU member states decided by consensus in January 2017 to resolve the question of the disputed territory of Western Sahara with Morocco "back in the family".

Introduction

The African Union (AU) came into existence in 2002 when it replaced the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which was established in 1963.  The main objectives of the OAU were to end colonialism and apartheid on the continent; to promote unity and solidarity among African states; to protect African countries' sovereignty and territorial integrity; and to coordinate and intensify international cooperation for development. The OAU was supplemented in 1994 by the African Economic Community (AEC), which had the general objective of promoting the socio-economic development and the integration of Africa. The OAU’s success in addressing colonialism and apartheid, however, was somewhat diminished by its lack of serious concern for human rights violations in African states and its undue emphasis on the principle of non-interference. 

The AU formation process began in 1999. The goal of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the OAU was to transform the continental organization into one that could keep pace with new political and socio-economic developments in the world in conformity with the ultimate objectives of the OAU Charter and AEC Treaty. Accordingly, the Constitutive Act of the African Union (Constitutive Act) was adopted in 2000 and entered into force in 2001. After a transitional period of one year, the AU formally replaced the OAU in 2002. In stark contrast to its predecessor, the objectives and guiding principles of the AU include the promotion of democratic principles and institutions, popular participation and good governance, promotion and protection of human and peoples' rights, and the ability of the organization to take action upon the decision of the Assembly (in cases of grave violations of human rights) or upon request of a member state.

Currently, key issues of contention between civil society and governments at the African Commission, which functions as the secretariat of the AU, include the shrinking space for civil society in many African countries and the increase in the number of governments imposing laws that discriminate against citizens on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. In addition, the AU is playing a diplomatic role in mediating conflicts in countries such as Libya, Central African Republic and Burkina Faso, though its effectiveness is sometimes a question of debate among Africa followers. A positive development is that the AU has begun soliciting views from African civil society about the role it can play in political and socio-economic development, human welfare, governance, peace and security in Africa with the AU in coming decades as part of the African Union Agenda 2063 project.

The AU’s supreme organ is the Assembly of Heads of State and Government. Other key organs include the Executive Council; the Pan-African Parliament; the African Court of Justice; the Economic, Social and Cultural Council; and the Peace and Security Council.  The AU is a relatively young organization and some of its institutions, including judicial bodies, are still not fully operational.

Nonetheless, the AU remains forward-looking. The AU declared 2016 the "African Year of Human Rights with Particular Focus on the Rights of Women" and said it was "aimed at celebrating the gains made so far, reviewing the human rights situation on the continent, taking stock of what still needs to be done to create a culture of human rights observance on the continent, and exploring how best to address the remaining human rights challenges." Activities sought to include and give ownership to stakeholders and partners at all levels (political, institutional, civil society organizations, national and community levels).

Please see the African Union website here.

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Key Facts

Headquarters Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Members 54
Established 2002
Founding Document Constitutive Act of the African Union
Head Current Chairperson of the AU: Alpha Condé (Guinea); and Chairperson of the AU Commission (Secretariat of the Union), Moussa Faki (Chad)
Governing Bodies Assembly of Heads of State and Government: supreme decision-making body
The Executive Council: coordinates and makes decisions on policies in areas of common interest to the Member States and considers issues referred to it and monitors the implementation of policies formulated by the Assembly
Pan-African Parliament
African Court of Justice
Economic, Social and Cultural Council
Peace and Security Council
Key Human Rights Agreements African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (African Charter);
Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (to remain in force for not longer than one year after the entry into force of the Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights)
Key Judicial Bodies African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR); 
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (to become the African Court of Justice and Human Rights after merger with the African Court of Justice)

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Members

Algeria Gabon Rwanda
Angola The Gambia Saharawi Arab Republic
Benin Ghana São Tomé and Príncipe
Botswana Guinea Senegal
Burkina Faso Guinea-Bissau Seychelles
Burundi Kenya Sierra Leone
Cameroon Lesotho Somalia
Cape Verde Liberia South Africa
Central African Republic Libya South Sudan
Chad Madagascar Sudan
Côte d'Ivoire Malawi Swaziland
Democratic Republic of the Congo Mali Tanzania
Republic of the Congo Mauritius  Togo
Djibouti  Mauritania Tunisia
Egypt Mozambique Uganda
Equatorial Guinea Namibia  Zambia
Eritrea Niger  Zimbabwe
Ethiopia Nigeria  Morocco *

* (Morocco rejoined the African Union in 2017 after 33 years of having withdrawn its memberhsip)

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At a Glance

Freedom of Association Legal Protection African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Article 10 

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 8 

African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance, Articles 6, 7, and 12(3)
Legislature The Pan-African Parliament
Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Bodies African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights  

African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (will become the African Court of Justice and Human Rights after being merged with the African Court of Justice, whose Protocol entered into force in February 2009). 

The African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
Civil Society Participation Ability to Participate in AU Activities There are generally four formal avenues for CSOs to participate in the activities of the AU: 

1. Participation in sessions and meetings of the AU and its organs with AU Observer Status; 

2. As members of ECOSOCC, which is an AU organ designed specifically to give CSOs a voice in the AU;

3. Participation in pre-Summit meetings organized by  the African Citizens’ Directorate (CIDO) of the AU Commission; and

4. Participation in the work and sessions of the ACHPR and the Committee on the Rights and Welfare of the Child with Observer Status at these bodies.

CSOs may also participate in the work of the AU through consultative meetings and other ad hoc fora with the AU’s various organs and departments.
Registration Process CSOs must go through the procedure and meet the criteria outlined by the Executive Council decision EX.CL/195(VII); or Statute of ECOSOCC, article 6; criteria set by CIDO; or the Criteria for Granting Observer Status of either of the human rights bodies.
Registered CSOs 150 ECOSSOC members and more than 450 CSOs with Observer Status at the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
Human Rights Defenders Current Status The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights has established a Special Rapporteur on Human Rights Defenders in Africa.

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Key Legal Texts

Freedom of Association

African Commission on Human and People's Rights Year
Civil Liberties Organization in respect of Nigerian Bar Association vs. Nigeria – 8th Annual Report, (¶¶ 14 – 16) 1994-95
International Pen, Constitutional Rights Project, Interights on behalf of Ken Saro-Wiwa Jr. and Civil Liberties Organisation/Nigeria – 12th Annual Report, p. 62-73 (¶¶ 107-110) 1998
Amnesty International/Zambia – 12th Annual Report, p. 76-81 (¶¶ 48-49) 1999
ACHPR /Res.5(XI)92: Resolution on the Right to Freedom of Association 1999
Huri-Laws v. Nigeria – 14th Annual Report,  pp. 57-66 (¶¶ 47-49) 2000
John D. Ouko/Kenya – 14th Annual Report,  pp. 73-77 (¶¶ 29-30) 2000
Sir Dawda K. Jawara/The Gambia – 13th Annual Report, p. 96-107 (¶¶ 68-69) 2000
Kazeem Aminu / Nigeria – 13th Annual Report, , p. 112-116 (¶¶ 22-23) 2000
Malawi African Association and others/Mauritania -- 13th Annual Report, p. 138-162 (¶¶106-107) 2000
ACHPR/Res151(XLVI)09: Resolution on the Need for the Conduct of a Study on the Freedom of Association in Africa 2009
ACHPR Report of the Study Group on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa 2014
African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights  
Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum v Zimbabwe- pp. 54 – 102 (¶¶ 101, 104, 107, 129, 187) 2006
African Court of Justice and Human Rights  
Tanganyika Law Society et al v. The United Republic of Tanzania 2013
African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child  
The Committee is not yet operational.  

Civil Society

Constitutive Act  
Preamble; Art. 3 (a), (g), (h), (k); Art 4 (c), (m), Art. 22 2000
Assembly Resolutions  
Statutes of the Economic, Social, and Cultural Council of the African Union 2004
Executive Council  
Criteria for Granting Observer Status and for a System of Accreditation within the AU 2005
African Commission on Human and People's Rights  
ACHPR /Res.33 (XXV) 99: Resolution on the Criteria for Granting and Enjoying Observer Status to Non-Governmental Organizations Working in the Field of Human and Peoples’ Rights 1999
ACHPR /Res.30(XXIV)98: Resolution on the Cooperation between the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights and NGOs having Observer Status with the Commission 1998
African Commission’s Special Rapporteur on Human Rights Defenders Endorses “Defending Civil Society” Report (French only) 2008
African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child  
Criteria for Granting Observer Status in the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child to NGOs and Associations      2007

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Overview

The AU is still a relatively young organization whose institutions are being formed and developed. 

A. Judicial Bodies

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Commission), a quasi-judicial body, is charged with protecting and promoting human rights under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) through interpretation of the African Charter at the request of a State Party or an organization recognized by the AU, consideration of inter-state and individual communications, and examination of State reports.

The African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (Committee of Experts), another quasi-judicial human rights body, was created by the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (Children’s Charter, or ACRWC), which was adopted in 1990 and entered into force in 1999. The Committee of Experts came into being in 2001 and is responsible for interpreting the provisions of the ACRWC at the request of a State Party or institutions recognized by the AU or a State Party.  The Committee of Experts may examine a State Party’s reports, consider communications submitted by any person, group, NGO recognized by the AU or a Member State, and conduct onsite investigations. The Committee of Experts has been examining states’ reports and considering at least two communications. In March 2011, it passed its first decision, finding Kenya in violation of the rights of children of Nubian descent, and held admissible a case concerning children’s rights in Northern Uganda. More recently, in January 2014, the Committee of Experts launched "The Campaign for the Universal Ratification of and Reporting on the ACWRC." Only seven countries are yet to agree to the implementation of the ACRWC.

The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Human Rights Court) was established to complement the protective mandate of the Commission. The Human Rights Court has jurisdiction over all cases and disputes submitted to it concerning the interpretation and application of the African Charter and any other relevant human rights instrument ratified by the State concerned. It may also provide advisory opinions on legal matters relating to these instruments upon the request of the AU, its organs and Member States as well as any African organization recognized by the AU.  The Court has so far decided a number of individual applications on the basis of preliminary objections to its jurisdiction and it has referred a few cases to the African Commission. In an application submitted by the African Commission regarding violations of human rights committed at the beginning of the Libyan uprising, the Court ordered provisional measures against the then Libyan Government. The Court has been considering expanding its jurisdiction to cover criminal offences, but whether that would include war crimes and crimes against humanity is not yet known.

In July 2008, the Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights (Merger Protocol) was adopted. The Merger Protocol created the African Court of Justice and Human Rights (Merged Court), a single court that encompasses the functions of both the Human Rights Court and the African Court of Justice. The Protocol establishing the Human Rights Court shall remain in force for a period not exceeding one year after it enters into force of the Merger Protocol. This is expected to take some time as only five countries have ratified the protocol out of 15 needed for its entry into force.

The African Court of Justice and Human Rights will be the main judicial organ of the AU. Once operational, it will have a General Affairs Section and a Human Rights Section.  The Human Rights Section will have jurisdiction over cases and legal disputes that relate to, among other things, the interpretation and the application of the African Charter, and the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, the African Child Rights Charter, and any other legal instruments relating to human rights ratified by the State Parties concerned. This will make it a Court with jurisdiction over all substantive human rights norms within the AU framework. Those entitled to submit cases to the African Court of Justice and Human Rights include State Parties to the Merger Protocol, the Commission, the Committee of Experts, African intergovernmental organizations accredited by the AU or its organs, and African national human rights institutions. Individuals and NGOs are only able to bring cases in their own right if the state against which they are complaining has at the time of ratification made a declaration accepting the competence of the Court to hear cases brought via this route. While the African Court of Justice and Human Rights appears to allow for greater access to the AU human rights judicial system by expanding the category of those with standing to bring cases before it, it also limits access by restricting standing to intergovernmental organizations accredited by the AU or its organs and changing the requirement for NGO access from those with Observer Status at the Commission to those accredited by the AU or its organs.  Additionally, the “special declaration” requirement may make it difficult in practice for individuals and NGOs to be heard before the Court, as AU Member States have shown reluctance to grant such authority. However, only several countries have given the Human Rights Court such authority.

B. Freedom of Association

Article 10 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights provides:

  1. Every individual shall have the right to free association provided that he abides by the law.
  2. Subject to the obligation of solidarity provided for in Article 29, no one may be compelled to join an association. 

Article 8 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child provides: Every child shall have the right to free association and freedom of peaceful assembly in conformity with the law.

Article 10 of the African Charter, contains a ‘claw-back’ provision (“provided that he abides by the law”) that may filter the freedom of association through the domestic law of Member States. The Commission, however, has repeatedly held that domestic laws regulating freedom of association should be in conformity with international human rights standards and should not unduly restrict the exercise of the right. (Resolution on Freedom of Association, Communications 101/93, 147/95 & 149/96, and 225/98). The Commission has further underlined the interrelationship among the freedom of association, the freedom of assembly and the freedom of expression, stating that actions violating the first two implicitly violate the third. (Communications 137/94 and others, 245/2002). It also has found that persecution or imprisonment for belonging to a political party, organization or group whose criminal nature is not established violates Article 10. (Communications 205/97, 54/91 and others, 137/94 and others, and 212/98).  In addition, the Commission has interpreted the scope and meaning of Article 10 in several cases.

The Commission established in 2004 a Special Rapporteur on Human Rights Defenders in Africa, who is currently Reine Alapini Gansou of Benin. The Special Rapporteur’s mandate includes seeking, receiving, examining, and acting upon information regarding human rights defenders in Africa; cooperating and engaging in dialogue with Member States, national, regional and international mechanisms of protection of human rights defenders, human rights defenders and other stake holders; developing and recommending effective strategies to better protect human rights defenders; and promoting the implementation of the UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders in Africa. In order to fulfill its mandate, the Special Rapporteur often engages civil society organizations working on human rights in Member States. In August 2013, for example, Lucy Asuagbor of Cameroon spoke at the Second Meeting of the Study Group on Freedom of Association in Africa in Benin, where she "reminded the members of the Study Group of the key role played by freedom of association and underscored the fact that freedom of association is a gateway to all the rights guaranteed by the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights." The Study Group report was adopted at the Session in May 2014 in Angola and was published later that year.

C. Civil Society Participation

The AU has been criticized for the limited access it grants to civil society organizations.  According to an audit report completed by an independent high level panel commissioned by the AU, “[D]espite stated commitment from all policy organs of the African Union; the Panel finds that the involvement of African citizens, civil society organizations, and private sector bodies is still at a nascent stage.” (Audit Report (2007), ¶194)  This section considers the available avenues for civil society participation:

1. AU Observer Status

CSOs may secure Observer Status at the AU through the procedure established by the Criteria for Granting Observer Status and for a System of Accreditation within the AU. The Criteria establishes the requirements and procedure for granting AU Observer Status to CSOs and the accreditation procedure for Non-African States and International Organizations at the AU.  An CSO granted Observer Status under the Criteria may participate in the meetings (including in closed meetings upon invitation and with a chance to take the floor with authorization) of the AU and its organs on matters of their interest and may have access to unrestricted AU documents. 

To be eligible for Observer Status, CSOs must, among other criteria, derive at least two-thirds of their basic resources from membership contributions.  In light of the difficulty in generating such resources, such eligibility requirements serve as a real barrier in attaining Observer Status.  Tellingly, the only entities that have been granted Observer Status or accreditation by the AU since 2005 are foreign states and intergovernmental organizations including UN agencies and programs.  Consequently, the AU may reconsider the criteria for granting Observer Status, although since 2005 there do not appear to be any significant changes in the system. (See Decision on the Application by Lions Club International for Accreditation with the AU Doc. EX.CL/212 (VIII).

2. The ECOSOCC

The principle consultative platform for CSO involvement with the African Union is through the Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC), which originated from the premise that continental integration should be people-driven and built on community-based partnership between governments and all sectors of civil society. ECOSOCC is established by Article 5 of the Constitutive Act and specifically designed to give CSOs a voice in AU decision-making processes. is designed to give CSOs a voice within AU Institutions and decision-making processes. 

ECOSOCC's objectives include promoting dialogue and partnership between African governments and their peoples and among the African people themselves; promoting the participation of African CSOs in programs and activities of the AU and building their capacity; and promoting human rights, good governance, and the rule of law. 

The ECOSOCC ultimately is to be comprised of 150 CSOs representing different sectors and professional organizations within member states which form its General Assembly, a 15-member standing committee, 10 sectoral cluster committees, and a 5-person credentials committee. The requirements for CSO membership are found in the Statutes of the Economic, Social and Cultural Council of the African Union.  Membership in ECOSOCC requires an organization to receive at least 50% of its resources from member contributions, provide information on funding sources for the preceding three years, submit annual audit statements by an independent auditing company, and fulfill other bureaucratic requirements.  As in the case of Observer Status, such criterion prevents most CSOs from obtaining membership in ECOSOCC and many applications are deemed unqualified.  Some AU leaders, including former interim ECOSOCC presiding officer Maathai Wangari, have criticized the funding requirements as unduly restrictive. However, current presiding officer Akere Muna has stated that he considers the requirement worthwhile “to avoid 'strings attached' conditions from external donors.”  Other experts, however, say that despite stringent requirements, official acknowledgement of a role for civil society within the AU is a victory in itself. 

Although its Interim General Assembly was first convened in March 2005, ECOSOCC was not officially launched and its Credentials Committee was not elected until September 2008. In January 2010, the process of election of CSOs was completed in most member states and the Permanent General Assembly of the ECOSOCC was poised to fully assume its role. But the 20 seats allocated by the statutes of ECOSOCC to the Diaspora are yet to be filled. In December 2009, the Standing Committee discussed a framework for the operationalization of the cluster committees, the key operational mechanisms of the ECOSOCC to formulate opinions and provide input into the policies and programs of the AU. The constitution of membership and the development of activities of the different clusters and their rules of engagement with other organs and units of the AU were in the process of completion. In the meantime, the Peace and Security Cluster, the Political Affairs Cluster, Cross Cutting Cluster and the Youth Affairs Cluster, have jump-started the process of Cluster operationalization by collaborating with the AU Commission and other relevant bodies.

In December 2016, ECOSOCC expressed that it was "extremely concerned about the situation in the Gambia since the outgoing President [referring to Yahya Jameh] unjustly rejected the outcome of the December 1 election in his statement on 9 December 2016 only one week after he has rightly accepted the election results and conceded defeat to the opposition." ECOSOCC also expressed concern "about the dangers and risks to Gambian civil society and strongly urge[d] the authorities in Gambia to ensure the safety and security of civil society members including journalists."

3. Pre-Summit Meetings and Summit Representation

The African Citizens’ Directorate (CIDO) was established in 2005 to liaise with CSOs on the continent, reach out to the African Diaspora, and function as an interim secretariat for ECOSOCC. CIDO is mandated to facilitate civil society contributions to the decision-making processes of the AU, including the Summits.  It has also been instrumental in the establishment of the ECOSOCC. 

CSOs must meet certain selection criteria in order to participate in CIDO’s pre-Summit meetings.  CIDO’s selections are based on the theme of the Summit (the most important criterion), the availability of resources, regional balance, social diversity to reflect the various social and professional groups, the scope of representation of a CSO, the location of the Summit (to enhance the profile of CSOs in the area while reducing cost), and considerations of gender balance and representation of disadvantaged groups. This selection process has also been criticized for being unpredictable and unduly subjective. (Audit Report, para 205).

Local as well as international NGOs may further be represented at a Summit of the AU through ad hoc observer status or accreditation that is processed through CIDO. CIDO receives applications from interested CSOs well before the dates of the Summit and decisions are made for the very limited slots based among others on relevance to the Summit theme, timing of application, role envisaged in Summit, and history of association with AU. This is in addition to 5 CSOs representing the ECOSOCC, as an organ of the AU, at the Summits and others that have special summit representation facilities by virtue of separate agreement with the AU.

4. Observer Status at the ACHPR

The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR) is the one organ within the AU where the participation of CSOs has been quite strong.  In 1999, the ACHPR adopted Criteria for Granting and Enjoying Observer Status to establish the accreditation procedure, and rules governing organizations with Observer Status.  CSOs with Observer Status are invited to public and sometimes closed sessions of the ACHPR; have access to ACHPR documents, provided the documents deal with issues of relevance to the organization, and are not of a confidential nature; and may request the inclusion of issues on the provisional agenda of the Commission.

There are more than 450 CSOs with Observer Status at the ACHPR. They have submitted complaints on behalf of African citizens to the ACHPR, provided information necessary for the examination of states’ reports, and participated in the work of special mechanisms. For example, an NGO Forum is held before Commission sessions where Commissioners take part. There are growing Networks of sub-regional Human Rights Defenders that work actively with the ACHPR.

5. Observer Status at African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

The Committee of Experts is at an early stage of operation. However, CSOs have been involved in its meetings since it began work in 2002. CSOs have been allowed to participate in its public sessions. Specifically, CSOs with information regarding State reports have been permitted to submit alternative reports. In order to formalize collaboration with CSOs, the Expert Committee adopted Criteria for Granting Observer Status to NGOs and Associations in 2007.

A CSO with Observer Status may participate in the meetings of the Expert Committee (closed meetings may be attended upon invitation), have access to unrestricted documents, and may request the inclusion of an issue on the Expert Committee’s agenda.  The Committee had difficulty granting many applications for observer status because of some stringent requirements in its Criteria, which it amended in November 2009. It has since granted observer status to a number of CSOs. 

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Reports

Civil Society Participation

Protecting Democracy: Reclaiming Civil Society Space in Africa. 21-23, November 2011, Johannesburg, South Africa

Report of AU - CSO Pre-Summit Forum (Accra - Ghana 19 - 21 June 2007) 

Grand Bay (Mauritius) Declaration and Plan of Action (1999), ¶¶ 17 – 19 


Kigali Declaration on Human Rights (2003), ¶ 28 

Advancing Children's Rights: A Guide for Civil Society Organizations on How to Engage with the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 2009


Oxfam's Policy Brief on the African Union (January 2013)

Agenda 2063

Human Rights Defenders

Africa’s New Human Rights Court: Whistling in the Wind?(2009)

Can the Leopard Change Its Spots? The African Union Treaty and Human Rights (2002)

Agenda 2063 "The Africa We Want" (2016)

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Additional Resources


Key Events

Please see the African Union "Events Page" here.

 

General News

Twelve Points for the New African Union Commission Chairperson (March 2017)
Africa is experiencing the highest number of humanitarian crises since the 1990s. As the new chair of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki Mahamat, takes office, International Crisis Group suggests how he can strengthen the organisation's response to threats to continental peace and security.

Morocco rejoins the African Union after 33 years (January 2017)
The African Union has decided to allow Morocco back into the fold after a 33-year absence, despite stiff resistance from some member states over the status of Western Sahara. After an emotional and tense debate, member states decided by consensus to leave the question of the disputed territory of Western Sahara for another day, and resolve it with Morocco "back in the family". The only African country not to belong to the AU, Morocco left its predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity, in 1984 after the body recognised the independence of Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara.

ECOSOCC calls for an expedient and peaceful transition of power in the Gambia (December 2016)
ECOSOCC is extremely concerned about the situation in the Gambia since the outgoing President unjustly rejected the outcome the December 1 election in his statement on 9 December 2016 only one week after he has rightly accepted the election results and conceded defeat to the opposition. ECOSOCC is also particularly concerned about the dangers and risks to Gambian civil society and strongly urges the authorities in Gambian to ensure the safety and security of civil society members including journalists.

The Fifth Annual African Union Dialogue on Democracy, Human Rights and Governance in Africa (December 2016)
A High Level Dialogue (HLD) was part of the celebrations of 2016 as the Year of Human Rights in Africa with Particular Focus on the Rights of Women. The event was held in Arusha, Tanzania, jointly by AU organs with a human rights mandate.

African Union calls for nominations for Dlamini-Zuma position (August 2016)
African Union (AU) chairperson, Dr Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, is preparing to leave the organisation after having served her term. In a statement, the continental organisation said the process to choose her successor will take place on the 30th and 31st of January 2017. The nomination process closes on 19th August 2016.

The march of democracy slows (August 2016)
Nicholas Cheeseman, an academic at Oxford University, reckons that of 91 presidents and prime ministers to have held office on the continent in civilian regimes since 1989, 45% once either served in the armed forces or were guerrillas before becoming politicians. This includes all four presidents in the Great Lakes region around eastern Congo, as well as Nigeria's Mr Buhari. Coups are far less common these days; the African Union, often an ineffectual organisation, has recently taken a firm stand against them. Yet the prevalence of so many former fighting men in civilian office highlights the influence that armies still wield in politics.

African Union chief Dlamini-Zuma to step down (April 2016)
African Union Commission head Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, who is tipped to take over the leadership of South Africa's ruling African National Congress, will step down at the end of her four-year term in July 2016, her spokesman said. Dlamini-Zuma did not submit an application to remain as chairperson for a second term before the deadline for candidates closed last week.

AU goes into election mode (January 2016)
The AU goes into election mode as member states decide who to back for AU Commission chair at the next summit in July. The big question is whether Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma will stand again or repair to South Africa to join the race for the presidency.

26th AU summit opens in Ethiopia's capital (January 2016)
The 26th ordinary session of the African Union (AU) heads of states and governments kicks off on Saturday at the AU Headquarters in Ethiopia's capital Addis Ababa.Heads of states of the 54-member pan-African bloc convene their two-day session under the theme, "2016: African Year of Human Rights with particular focus on the Rights of Women."

Burkina Faso opposition parties, African Union reject army takeover (November 2014)
Burkina Faso's opposition parties, the United States and the African Union rejected the army's seizure of power in the West African country after the resignation of President Blaise Compaore, setting the stage for fresh street protests. The military top brass named Lieutenant Colonel Isaac Zida, deputy commander of the elite presidential guard, as head of state on Saturday. A power struggle within the armed forces was resolved by sidelining the chief of staff.

Key developments from the 55th session of the African Commission (May 2014)
Shrinking civil society space and violations on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity have been the subject of some strong statements from NGOs at the 55th session of the Commission. This prompted aggressive responses from several of the States criticised. Many NGOs also raised the issue of shrinking civil society space across the continent.

News Archive


African human rights court could cover criminal offences
(February 2014)

AU Poll Observer Team Holds Meeting With Civil Society Groups(June 2013)

Ethiopia’s Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn elected by African heads of state as chairman of the African Union (February 2013)

African elections succeed when civil society is involved (October 2012)

Joint NGO letter expresses concern about the candidacy of Sudan and Ethiopia to the UNHRC (July 2012)

African civil society raft demands to AU (July 2012)

NGO forum preceding the 51st ordinary session report of the Working Group on Torture, Death Penalty and Prisons and Conditions of Detention in Africa (May 2012)

Special Rapporteur on Women's Rights in Africa to the African Union Commission salutes NGO forum (April 2012)

African Charter on Democracy, elections and governance enters into force (February 2012)

Civil society organizations discuss developments affecting criminal justice in Africa (January 2012)

Press Release on ICC Decisions of the Pre-Trial Chamber I on Malawi and Chad (January 2012)

Human rights situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (January 2012)

The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights held its first session out of Tanzania (January 2012)

Summary report of the NGOs forum (November 2011)

African leaders agree a common position on aid, development (October 2011) 

Decision on children of Nubian descent in Kenya published (September 2011)

African Union summit struggles to raise funds to combat Horn of Africa crisis (August 2011)

Joint declaration - The 5th College-to-College meeting of the European Commission and the African Union Commission
(June 2011) 

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights meeting at its 49th Ordinary Session  (May 2011)

A call for comments on the draft Access to Information Model Law in Africa (May 2011)

The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights orders for Provisional Measures against Libya (March 2011) 

Resolution passed at the 16th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the Union (February 2011)

Statement by the Chairperson of the African Union Commission on the Situation in Tunisia (January 2011)

Human rights activists critical of Obiang AU nomination (January 2011) 

African Union summit agenda skips Egypt, Tunisia (January 2011)

AU’s relevance and prominence on the international stage is growing despite despotic leadership (January 2011)

The foregoing information was collected by the ICNL Civic Freedom Monitor partner organization.

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